bio questions

answer 7 questions

1.Why is the source of the complexity of transcription in eukaryotes?

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Inside the nucleus the biosynthesis of RNA occurs. The template on the DNA’s promoter starts the beginning of transcription with a TATA box and will move ‘upstream.’ Proteins known as transcription factors bind with the RNA polymerase and assist it to the DNA molecule. When this unit is bound RNA polymerase II binds to it. This unit is now called a transcription initiation complex. The transcription initiation complex opens the two strands of DNA beginning mRNA synthesis at the 5’ end of the DNA. RNA nucleotides attach to the DNA complementary nucleotides creating the new strand of mRNA. The molecule of mRNA elongates (elongation) and when the strand is synthesized, termination of transcription occurs when the terminator signals the end (termination

2. Obviously, eukaryotes have a pretty complex way of dealing with active and inactive genomic regions. Why is this epigenetic remodeling apparatus here? Speculate as to the evolutionary origins of chromatic remodeling via histone tails.What purpose does it serve and why eukaryotes and some archae? What prexisting system did this epigenetic system arise from?

3.Introns are present in eukaryotes and some archae. What can you say about why they are there? What purpose do they serve? Are their analagous structures in the eubacterial domain?

4.Compared to eukaryotes prokaryotic protein synthesis is much simpler. Why is the source of the complexity of transcription in eukayotes?

5. The third codon position, in addition to having inosine at times, though not always, rather than your regular “fab four” nucleotides has variability in canonical Watson-Crick base pairing. Why do you think wobble exists? How does it serve cells and the production of proteins? Discuss what the implications are for the genetic code and protien synthesis.

6.In the large subunit of the ribosome the 23S subunit within it catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds.What is the significance of this to early life and the first cells?

7.The genetic code is pretty uniform across all taxon. There are some exceptions, for example the UGA stop codon in Drosophila codes for tryptophan. A couple of ciliates have some exceptions as well. Discuss the evolutionary implications of this.What does it mean for the theory of evolution and common ancestry?

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